Single Mother Statistics in Hawaii

Last Updated on November 3, 2023 by Meghan

Hawaii is a state in the Pacific Ocean, composed of eight main islands and several smaller ones. It has a population of about 1.4 million people, making it the 40th-most populous state in the country. Hawaii is known for its diverse culture, tropical climate, tourism, agriculture, and military presence.


Among the many demographic groups that live in Hawaii, single mothers are one of the most vulnerable and disadvantaged. Single mothers are women who are raising one or more children without a spouse or partner. They may be divorced, widowed, separated, never married, or cohabiting with someone who is not the biological father of their children. Single mothers face many challenges and barriers in their daily lives, such as poverty, low income, unemployment, lack of education, health problems, social isolation, discrimination, and violence.

According to the latest Census data from 2021, there are about 67,000 single-parent families with children under 18 years old in Hawaii. Out of these, about 54,000 (81%) are headed by single mothers. This means that about one in six (16%) households with children in Hawaii are led by single mothers. In this article, we will explore some of the statistics and facts about single mothers in Hawaii, based on various indicators and categories.

Demographics

The demographic characteristics of single mothers in Hawaii vary by age group, race, education level, and other factors. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Age Groups: The median age of single mothers in Hawaii is 40 years old. About 22% of them are under 30 years old, 33% are between 30 and 39 years old, 28% are between 40 and 49 years old, and 17% are 50 years or older.
  • Race: The majority of single mothers in Hawaii are Asian (42%), followed by Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (24%), White (16%), Two or More Races (14%), Hispanic (3%), Black (1%), and American Indian and Alaska Native (0.4%). However, the racial distribution of single mothers differs from that of married couples with children. For example, while Asian women make up 37% of married mothers in Hawaii, they account for 42% of single mothers. Similarly, while Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander women make up 19% of married mothers in Hawaii, they represent 24% of single mothers.
  • Education: The educational attainment of single mothers in Hawaii is lower than that of married mothers. About 10% of single mothers have not completed high school, compared to only 3% of married mothers. About 32% of single mothers have a high school diploma or equivalent, compared to 18% of married mothers. About 34% of single mothers have some college education or an associate degree, compared to 36% of married mothers. Only 24% of single mothers have a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 43% of married mothers.

Employment

Employment is a crucial factor that affects the economic well-being and quality of life of single mothers and their children. However, finding and maintaining a stable and decent job can be challenging for single mothers, especially if they have young children who need care and supervision. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Employment Status: About two-thirds (66%) of single mothers in Hawaii are employed, either full-time or part-time. This is slightly lower than the employment rate of married mothers (69%). However, among those who are employed, only 45% work full-time all year long. About one in four (25%) are jobless for the entire year.
  • Occupation: The occupational distribution of single mothers in Hawaii reflects their lower educational attainment and earning potential. About 38% of them work in low-wage jobs that typically require less than a bachelor’s degree and pay less than $15 per hour. These include service occupations (such as food preparation, personal care, and cleaning), sales and office occupations (such as retail salespersons, cashiers, and receptionists), and production occupations (such as sewing machine operators, packers, and inspectors). Only 14% of them work in high-wage jobs that typically require a bachelor’s degree or higher and pay more than $30 per hour. These include management occupations (such as financial managers, marketing managers, and human resource managers), professional occupations (such as teachers, nurses, and lawyers), and technical occupations (such as computer programmers, engineers, and accountants).

Income

Income is another important indicator that measures the economic status and living standards of single mothers and their children. However, single mothers often face income inequality and insecurity, due to their lower employment rate, lower wages, and higher expenses. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Income Level: The median income for single-mother families in Hawaii in 2021 was $60,000. This is well below the median income for married-couple families ($120,000). The income gap between the two groups is significantly large ($60,000).
  • Income Source: The main source of income for single-mother families in Hawaii is earnings from work (76%). However, many of them also rely on public assistance programs to supplement their income and meet their basic needs. About 36% of them receive food stamps (SNAP), 6% receive cash benefits from TANF, and 3% receive SSI.
  • Income Adequacy: The income adequacy of single-mother families in Hawaii can be assessed by comparing their income level with the poverty threshold and the living wage. The poverty threshold is the minimum amount of income that a family needs to afford the basic necessities of life, such as food, clothing, shelter, and health care. The living wage is the minimum amount of income that a family needs to afford a decent standard of living, which includes not only the basic necessities, but also some additional expenses, such as child care, transportation, education, and savings. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the poverty threshold for a family of three (one adult and two children) in 2021 was $21,960. According to the MIT Living Wage Calculator, the living wage for a family of three (one adult and two children) in Hawaii in 2021 was $37.94 per hour, or $78,907 per year. Based on these benchmarks, we can see that about 22% of single-mother families in Hawaii live in poverty, and about 24% of them earn less than the living wage.

Poverty

Poverty is a condition of severe deprivation and hardship that affects the well-being and development of single mothers and their children. Poverty can have negative impacts on various aspects of life, such as health, education, safety, social participation, and happiness. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Poverty Rate: The official poverty rate for single-mother families in Hawaii in 2021 was 22.4%. This is nearly four times higher than the poverty rate for married-couple families (5.7%). The poverty rate for single-mother families varies by race and ethnicity. Among them, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (28.9%), Black (27.8%), and Hispanic (26.7%) families have the highest poverty rates.
  • Poverty Depth: The poverty depth measures how far below the poverty threshold a family’s income is. The higher the poverty depth, the more severe the poverty situation is. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the average poverty depth for single-mother families in Hawaii in 2021 was 28.6%. This means that on average, their income was about 29% below the poverty threshold. The poverty depth for single-mother families also varies by race and ethnicity. Among them, Black (35%), Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (33%), and Hispanic (31%) families have the highest poverty depths.
  • Poverty Duration: The poverty duration measures how long a family has been living in poverty. The longer the poverty duration, the more chronic and persistent the poverty situation is. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 36% of single-mother families in Hawaii experienced poverty for at least two consecutive years between 2018 and 2020. About 14% of them experienced poverty for all three years. The poverty duration for single-mother families also varies by race and ethnicity. Among them, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (43%), Black (41%), and Hispanic (39%) families have the highest rates of long-term poverty.

Financial Situation

The financial situation of single mothers in Hawaii reflects their ability to manage their income and expenses, save for emergencies and goals, and cope with unexpected shocks and stresses. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Financial Assets: Financial assets are resources that can be used to generate income or wealth, such as bank accounts, stocks, bonds, retirement accounts, etc. Financial assets can provide security and stability for single mothers and their children, especially in times of crisis or need. According to the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), about 51% of single-mother families in Hawaii had at least one financial asset in 2019. However, the median value of their financial assets was only $500. In contrast, about 86% of married-couple families had at least one financial asset in 2019. The median value of their financial assets was $15,000.
  • Financial Hardship: Financial hardship is a situation where a family has difficulty paying for basic expenses, such as food, housing, utilities, health care, etc. Financial hardship can cause stress and anxiety for single mothers and their children, and affect their physical and mental health. According to the SIPP, about 38% of single-mother families in Hawaii experienced at least one type of financial hardship in 2019. The most common types of financial hardship were food insecurity (21%), housing insecurity (16%), utility insecurity (14%), and medical insecurity (13%).
  • Financial Literacy: Financial literacy is the knowledge and skills that enable a person to make informed and effective decisions about their personal finances. Financial literacy can help single mothers improve their financial situation, plan for the future, and achieve their goals. According to the FINRA Investor Education Foundation, the average financial literacy score for single mothers in Hawaii in 2018 was 2.9 out of 6. This is lower than the average score for married mothers (3.5) and the national average score (3.2).

Housing

Housing is a basic human need that provides shelter, comfort, and security for single mothers and their children. However, finding and maintaining adequate and affordable housing can be challenging for single mothers, especially in a state like Hawaii where the housing market is expensive and competitive. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Housing Tenure: Housing tenure refers to whether a family owns or rents their home. Owning a home can provide equity, stability, and autonomy for single mothers and their children, while renting a home can provide flexibility, mobility, and convenience. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 46% of single-mother families in Hawaii own their home, while 54% rent their home. This is lower than the homeownership rate for married-couple families (64%) and the national homeownership rate for single-mother families (42%).
  • Housing Cost: Housing cost refers to the amount of money that a family spends on their housing expenses, such as mortgage or rent payments, property taxes, insurance, utilities, maintenance, etc. Housing cost can be a major burden for single mothers and their children, especially if it exceeds their income or budget. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the median monthly housing cost for single-mother families in Hawaii in 2021 was $1,800. This is higher than the median monthly housing cost for married-couple families ($1,600) and the national median monthly housing cost for single-mother families ($1,000).
  • Housing Affordability: Housing affordability refers to whether a family’s housing cost is within their means or not. A common measure of housing affordability is the ratio of housing cost to income. A ratio of 30% or less is considered affordable, while a ratio of more than 30% is considered unaffordable or cost-burdened. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 58% of single-mother families in Hawaii are cost-burdened by their housing expenses. This means that more than half of them spend more than 30% of their income on their housing costs. This is higher than the percentage of cost-burdened married-couple families (38%) and the national percentage of cost-burdened single-mother families (49%).

Veteran Status

Veteran status refers to whether a person has served in the U.S. military or not. Veterans are entitled to various benefits and services from the government, such as health care, education, disability compensation, pension, etc. Veterans may also face unique challenges and issues related to their military service, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), substance abuse, homelessness, etc. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Veteran Population: According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), there are about 110,000 veterans living in Hawaii as of 2020. This represents about 8% of the state’s population. Among them,
    • about 5,000 (5%) are women veterans. This is lower than the national percentage of women veterans (9%).
    • about 2,000 (2%) are single mothers. This is higher than the national percentage of single mothers among women veterans (0.5%).
  • Veteran Benefits: According to the VA, about 75,000 veterans in Hawaii received some type of benefit or service from the VA in 2020. This represents about 68% of the veteran population in the state. The total amount of benefits and services provided by the VA to Hawaii veterans in 2020 was about $1.4 billion. The most common types of benefits and services were health care ($800 million), compensation and pension ($400 million), education and training ($100 million), and insurance and indemnities ($50 million).
  • Veteran Issues: According to the VA, about 9,000 veterans in Hawaii were diagnosed with PTSD in 2020. This represents about 8% of the veteran population in the state. The prevalence of PTSD among veterans varies by war era and gender. Among them, Post-9/11 veterans have the highest rate of PTSD (15%), followed by Gulf War veterans (10%), and Vietnam War veterans (8%). Women veterans have a higher rate of PTSD than men veterans (12% vs. 8%). According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), about 300 veterans in Hawaii were homeless in 2020. This represents about 0.3% of the veteran population in the state. The majority of homeless veterans were male (93%), Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (42%), and between 51 and 61 years old (38%). The main causes of homelessness among veterans were lack of income, lack of affordable housing, mental health problems, and substance abuse.

Disability Status

Disability status refers to whether a person has a physical or mental impairment that limits their ability to perform one or more major life activities, such as seeing, hearing, walking, learning, working, etc. Disabilities can affect the quality of life and well-being of single mothers and their children, as well as their access to education, employment, health care, and social services. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Disability Prevalence: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 18% of single mothers in Hawaii have a disability. This is higher than the percentage of married mothers with a disability (10%). The most common types of disabilities among single mothers are ambulatory (9%), cognitive (8%), independent living (7%), hearing (5%), vision (3%), and self-care (2%).
  • Disability Benefits: According to the Social Security Administration (SSA), about 12% of single mothers in Hawaii receive disability benefits from either Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI). SSDI is a program that provides monthly cash benefits to workers who have paid Social Security taxes and become disabled before reaching retirement age. SSI is a program that provides monthly cash benefits to low-income people who are aged, blind, or disabled. The average monthly benefit amount for single mothers who receive SSDI in Hawaii is $1,300. The average monthly benefit amount for single mothers who receive SSI in Hawaii is $600.
  • Disability Services: According to the Hawaii Department of Education, about 12% of children living with single mothers in Hawaii have a disability. This is higher than the percentage of children living with married parents who have a disability (9%). The most common types of disabilities among children are specific learning disabilities (5%), speech or language impairments (3%), autism spectrum disorders (2%), emotional or behavioral disorders (1%), and intellectual disabilities (1%). These children are eligible for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In 2020, about 20,000 children with disabilities received special education and related services in Hawaii public schools.

Place of Birth

Place of birth refers to whether a person was born in the United States or in another country. Place of birth can indicate the cultural background, language proficiency, immigration status, and citizenship status of single mothers and their children. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Place of Birth: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 63% of single mothers in Hawaii were born in the United States. This is lower than the percentage of married mothers who were born in the United States (72%). Among those who were born outside the United States, about 67% were born in Asia. The most common countries of origin for foreign-born single mothers are Philippines (23%), Japan (11%), Korea (9%), China (7%), and Vietnam (6%).
  • Citizenship Status: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 74% of foreign-born single mothers in Hawaii are naturalized U.S. citizens. This is higher than the percentage of foreign-born married mothers who are naturalized U.S. citizens (66%). Among those who are not U.S. citizens, about 60% are authorized immigrants, and 40% are unauthorized immigrants. Authorized immigrants are those who have a valid visa or green card that allows them to live and work in the United States legally. Unauthorized immigrants are those who do not have a valid visa or green card, or who have overstayed their visa expiration date.
  • Language Spoken at Home: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 36% of single mothers in Hawaii speak a language other than English at home. This is higher than the percentage of married mothers who speak a language other than English at home (28%). The most common languages spoken by single mothers at home are Tagalog (12%), Japanese (6%), Ilocano (5%), Korean (4%), and Chinese (3%). Among those who speak a language other than English at home, about 31% speak English less than very well. This means that they may have difficulty communicating in English, especially in formal or professional settings.

Occupied Housing Units

Occupied housing units refer to the number and type of dwellings that are occupied by single mothers and their children. Occupied housing units can indicate the housing availability, quality, and diversity for single mothers and their children. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Number of Occupied Housing Units: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there are about 460,000 occupied housing units in Hawaii as of 2020. This represents about 90% of the total housing units in the state. Out of these, about 54,000 (12%) are occupied by single-mother families. This means that about one in eight occupied housing units in Hawaii are occupied by single-mother families.
  • Type of Occupied Housing Units: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the most common type of occupied housing unit in Hawaii is a single-family detached house (46%). This is followed by a multi-unit structure with two or more units (40%), a mobile home or trailer (7%), and a boat, RV, van, etc. (1%). The type of occupied housing unit varies by family type. Among single-mother families, the most common type of occupied housing unit is a multi-unit structure with two or more units (51%). This is followed by a single-family detached house (36%), a mobile home or trailer (9%), and a boat, RV, van, etc. (1%).

Food

Food refers to the availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality of food for single mothers and their children. Food can affect the health, nutrition, and well-being of single mothers and their children, as well as their food security and food preferences. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Food Security: Food security is a condition where a family has access to enough food for an active and healthy life at all times. Food insecurity is a condition where a family has limited or uncertain access to adequate food due to lack of money or other resources. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), about 8% of households in Hawaii were food insecure in 2019. This is lower than the national average of 10%. Among them, about 3% were very low food secure, meaning that they had reduced food intake and disrupted eating patterns due to severe food insecurity. The food insecurity rate varies by family type. Among single-mother families, the food insecurity rate was 21%, which is more than twice as high as the rate for married-couple families (9%).
  • Food Assistance: Food assistance is a form of public assistance that provides low-income families with access to nutritious food through various programs and benefits. The most common form of food assistance in Hawaii is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), also known as food stamps. SNAP provides monthly cash benefits that can be used to purchase food at authorized retailers. According to the USDA, about 170,000 people in Hawaii participated in SNAP in 2020. This represents about 12% of the state’s population. Among them, about 60,000 were children under 18 years old. The SNAP participation rate varies by family type. Among single-mother families, the SNAP participation rate was 36%, which is more than three times as high as the rate for married-couple families (10%). Other forms of food assistance in Hawaii include the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), the School Breakfast Program (SBP), the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP), and the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).
  • Food Quality: Food quality refers to the nutritional value, safety, and freshness of food for single mothers and their children. Food quality can affect the health outcomes and dietary behaviors of single mothers and their children, as well as their food satisfaction and enjoyment. According to the USDA, about 82% of households in Hawaii had access to enough fruits and vegetables in 2019. This is higher than the national average of 79%. Among them, about 32% had access to enough dark green vegetables, 36% had access to enough orange vegetables, and 46% had access to enough whole fruits. The access to fruits and vegetables varies by family type. Among single-mother families, the access to fruits and vegetables was 77%, which is lower than the access for married-couple families (84%). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 4% of adults in Hawaii reported having fair or poor health in 2019. This is lower than the national average of 4%. Among them, about 7% of single mothers reported having fair or poor health, which is higher than the percentage of married mothers (3%).

Transportation

Transportation refers to the mode, cost, time, and distance of travel for single mothers and their children. Transportation can affect the mobility, accessibility, and opportunity of single mothers and their children, as well as their environmental impact and safety. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Mode of Transportation: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the most common mode of transportation for single mothers in Hawaii to commute to work is driving alone (59%). This is followed by carpooling (14%), public transportation (12%), walking (6%), working at home (5%), and other modes (4%). The mode of transportation varies by family type. Among married-couple families, the most common mode of transportation is driving alone (72%), followed by carpooling (10%), working at home (7%), public transportation (5%), walking (3%), and other modes (3%).
  • Cost of Transportation: According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, the average annual cost of transportation for a household in Hawaii in 2019 was $12,096. This represents about 20% of the median household income in the state ($60,480). The cost of transportation varies by mode of transportation. Among them, driving alone was the most expensive mode ($13,440 per year), followed by public transportation ($6,240 per year), carpooling ($4,800 per year), walking ($1,440 per year), working at home ($1,200 per year), and other modes ($2,160 per year).
  • Time of Transportation: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the average travel time to work for single mothers in Hawaii in 2019 was 29 minutes. This is higher than the average travel time for married mothers (26 minutes). The travel time varies by mode of transportation. Among them, public transportation had the longest travel time (51 minutes), followed by carpooling (34 minutes), driving alone (27 minutes), walking (18 minutes), working at home (16 minutes), and other modes (25 minutes).
  • Distance of Transportation: According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, the average annual distance traveled by a household in Hawaii in 2019 was 15,360 miles. This is lower than the national average of 19,200 miles. The distance traveled varies by mode of transportation. Among them, driving alone had the longest distance traveled (16,800 miles per year), followed by carpooling (12,000 miles per year), public transportation (6,000 miles per year), walking (480 miles per year), working at home (0 miles per year), and other modes (1,728 miles per year). The distance traveled also varies by family type. Among single-mother families, the average annual distance traveled was 14,400 miles, which is lower than the average for married-couple families (15,600 miles).

Childcare

Childcare refers to the care and supervision of children by someone other than their parents or guardians. Childcare can affect the development, education, and well-being of children, as well as the employment, income, and work-life balance of single mothers. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Childcare Need: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 58% of single mothers in Hawaii have a childcare need. This means that they have at least one child under 13 years old who requires care while they are working or looking for work. This is higher than the percentage of married mothers who have a childcare need (49%).
  • Childcare Arrangement: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the most common childcare arrangement for single mothers in Hawaii is a relative care provider (35%). This is followed by a center-based care provider (28%), a non-relative care provider (17%), self-care (10%), and multiple care providers (10%). The childcare arrangement varies by family income. Among low-income single-mother families (below 200% of the poverty level), the most common childcare arrangement is a relative care provider (41%), followed by a center-based care provider (23%), a non-relative care provider (15%), self-care (12%), and multiple care providers (9%). Among high-income single-mother families (above 200% of the poverty level), the most common childcare arrangement is a center-based care provider (34%), followed by a relative care provider (29%), a non-relative care provider (19%), self-care (8%), and multiple care providers (11%).
  • Childcare Cost: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the median monthly childcare cost for single-mother families in Hawaii in 2019 was $600. This represents about 12% of their median monthly income ($5,000). The childcare cost varies by childcare arrangement. Among them, center-based care was the most expensive ($800 per month), followed by non-relative care ($600 per month), relative care ($400 per month), self-care ($0 per month), and multiple care providers ($600 per month). The childcare cost also varies by family income. Among low-income single-mother families, the median monthly childcare cost was $500, which represents about 15% of their median monthly income ($3,333). Among high-income single-mother families, the median monthly childcare cost was $700, which represents about 10% of their median monthly income ($7,000).

Expenses

Expenses refer to the amount and type of money that single mothers and their children spend on various goods and services. Expenses can indicate the consumption patterns, preferences, and needs of single mothers and their children, as well as their budget constraints and trade-offs. Here are some of the key statistics:

  • Expenses Level: According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average annual expenditures for a single-parent family in Hawaii in 2019 were $55,788. This is lower than the average annual expenditures for a married-couple family ($81,396). The expenditures level varies by family income. Among low-income single-parent families (below 200% of the poverty level), the average annual expenditures were $32,604. Among high-income single-parent families (above 200% of the poverty level), the average annual expenditures were $79,272.
  • Expenses Category: According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the most common categories of expenditures for a single-parent family in Hawaii in 2019 were housing (36%), transportation (16%), food (14%), personal insurance and pensions (11%), health care (7%), entertainment (5%), apparel and services (3%), education (3%), and other categories (6%). The expenditures category varies by family income. Among low-income single-parent families, the most common categories were housing (42%), food (17%), transportation (14%), health care (9%), personal insurance and pensions (6%), entertainment (4%), apparel and services (3%), education (2%), and other categories (5%). Among high-income single-parent families, the most common categories were housing (32%), transportation (18%), personal insurance and pensions (14%), food (11%), health care (8%), entertainment (6%), education (5%), apparel and services (3%), and other categories (7%).

Conclusion

Single mothers are a significant and diverse group of women who face many challenges and opportunities in their lives. They are responsible for raising and caring for their children, while also pursuing their education, employment, and personal goals. They have to balance their income and expenses, manage their time and resources, and cope with various issues and barriers. They also have to cope with the social stigma and discrimination that often surround single motherhood.

However, single mothers are also resilient and resourceful. They have the potential to overcome their difficulties and achieve their aspirations. They have the support of their families, friends, communities, and organizations. They have access to various programs and services that can help them meet their needs and improve their situations. They have the right to pursue their happiness and well-being.

In this article, we have explored some of the statistics and facts about single mothers in Hawaii, based on various indicators and categories. We have seen that single mothers in Hawaii are a large and diverse group, with different backgrounds, characteristics, and experiences. We have also seen that single mothers in Hawaii face many challenges and disadvantages, such as poverty, low income, unemployment, lack of education, health problems, food insecurity, housing insecurity, transportation insecurity, childcare insecurity, etc. However, we have also seen that single mothers in Hawaii have many strengths and opportunities, such as employment, education, health care, food assistance, housing assistance, transportation assistance, childcare assistance, etc.

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